my Bridge experience , the worse partnership disasters are those
that occur with confusion over penalty doubles. Bridge bidding
is a language. A language that allows ambiguity i.e. two
different meanings for the same word is confusing and often leads
to misunderstandings. Same with the penalty double in Bridge . You
can make a penalty double with a majority of HCP’s or
a trump stack in their suit. How is partner to know the difference
? The answer is that he can not so this often leads to disaster. Pulling
doubles in competition becomes
a precarious gamble based on this ambiguity . If you do not pull
doubles , they often make their doubled contract or you can make a
vul game or slam and the penalty extracted nowhere compensates.
Actually the advocates of trump stack doubles get annoyed when
partner does make a penalty double based on HCP’s alone .
I do not blame them as these doubles should be pulled more often
then not . What compounds the problem is that people compete
more now and non trump stack doubles are being invented to
combat this “invasion of privacy” .
My answer to this dilemma is make all penalty
doubles “trump stack” doubles or none of them in
competitive auctions where forcing pass theory does not
apply. With modern bidding using the “law of total tricks
“ and the propensity to up the level when they have a good fit ,
I strongly feel that the trump stack double is the one to become
extinct when used as the initial action.
It is far more useful to have the penalty double just based on
HCP’s and convey the message of Do Something Intelligent
Partner or D.S.I.P. Trump
stack penalty doubles only occur by converting
partners double or later in the auction. Bad
decisions in competitive auctions are the norm . Confusion with
penalty doubles certainly does not help. D.S.I.P. theory &
Forcing Pass theory brings some much needed structure to
all competitive auctions. Having duplication of value in
their suit come down in the dummy is the most disappointing
aspect of competitive bidding. Having a method to identify
this duplication will have enormous benefit in competitive
decisions. Present penalty doubles do not do the job adequately as
there is ambiguity re duplication of value in their suit(s). The
standard interpretation of a pass in competitive auctions (where
you do not own the hand )
does not have the superb understanding of a forcing pass
. A forcing pass simply means no duplication of value or
quick losers in the enemy suit. However this
understanding is limited to auctions where you obviously own
Necessity is the mother of invention. One of the hands that
got me seriously thinking how silly it is to consider all
penalty doubles as “trump stack” doubles was a hand I
had an argument with my ex partner Peter Jones a staunch proponent
of all doubles should be of the “trump stack” variety. I sent
the hand around to people whose views I respected and an answer
came back from Gordon
Campbell . He suggested that this particular double on our
auction was a D.S.I.P. double and partner is encouraged to pull
the double depending on his hand.
Ambiguous bids in Bridge can be interpreted the same as
ambiguous words in a natural language. You can deduce the
meaning of the bid or word “depending
on the context” in which the word or bid was used. Gordon
implied that the penalty double in this particular auction was a
DSIP double as opposed to a trump stack double.
Another understanding that spurred me on to thinking that trump
stack doubles had to go was the “green
light” understanding. By failing to make a trump stack
double in a competitive auction this somehow gave partner
permission to bid again . This is outright stupid and
single handed. Most of the time it just allowed declarer to make
his contract or force partner to pull the double as he did not
have exactly as advertised and you go for a number in your
contract. This way of thinking is fine at the 5
level or higher because at these rarified levels you can have
them beat in your own hand with their trump. D.S.I.P. theory
converges with trump stack doubles at these very high
Another reason for eliminating the trump stack double is to
rid Bridge of the “bidding
cop” . This is the annoying partner who wants to punish bad
bidders with his penalty doubles because he does not like the
sound of the bidding in a competitive auction or just to announce
his trump stack. Quite often this leads to disaster as they make
the contract mainly because he is locating cards and trump. He
makes a single
handed decision for the partnership in competition without
input from partner. Trump
stack penalty doubles are one the most single handed actions in
Bridge and detracts from the partnership
element of the game of Bridge.
another reason for eliminating trump stack doubles from your
system is the IMP scale itself. The IMP scale taxes your big
winnings so to speak. As an example , say your good bidding
partners are in 2♥ making
for +110 . The opponents bid & play badly in 4♥
at your table so you collect +300. You win 410 or
9 IMPS. Say you double them at your table and knowing the
trump situation they play it better for –500
or they just go for –800. The 800 added to your partners
+110 is 910 or 14 IMPs which is only a gain of 5 IMPS. The 500
added to 110 is 610 or 12 IMPS. You are only gaining 3 or 5 IMPS
for your trump stack penalty double !
Not worth it in my opinion for the advantage of playing
Another reason for D.S.I.P. doubles is the variability
& ambiguity of bids in Bridge including Q bids . Openers are
getting lighter and lighter so there is a huge variance in
defensive values there. Overcalls vary quite drastically in
strength as do takeout doubles , negative doubles , re-opening
& systemic toys. With this variability how can one partner
judge that a trump stack penalty double is warranted ? If partner
is minimum , they
will probably make the contract and if he pulls he will not like
your duplication of value therefore he gets doubled in his
contract. D.S.I.P. theory lets the partnership decide by
allowing partner to make a D.S.I.P. double with his good defensive
hand and you can safely convert with your trump stack. No
guessing or pulling of trump stack doubles required.
This treatment is good insurance against a doubled
contract making. Instead of being afraid to make a trump stack
double in case partner is light for his values you just pass and
find out by letting partner double with good defense. This part of
D.S.I.P. theory is quite similar to negative double theory
except partner is not obligated to double. D.S.I.P. theory
prevents bad penalty doubles by trigger happy partners. Penalty
doubles are shown by trapping and putting the green card on the
table unless partner has made a non pass.. D.S.I.P. doubles define
your Q bids. You always double to show a good hand with no fit and
bids can always show a fit for partners suit. D.S.I.P. doubles
prevent rescuing the opponents from bad spots and allows your side
to compete without partner punishing you by doubling the
opponents. If she does make a trump stack double she is doing it
at her own risk after you have just competed.
Another justification for D.S.I.P. doubles is protecting
against a tactic by opponents trying to steal your hand based on
their good trump fit or just straight overbidding . They know the
law of total tricks so they try to buy the contract when you have
the preponderance of HCP’s . The weapon of choice against these
tactics is the penalty double to tell your partner that you have
the balance of power. These balance
of power doubles are D.S.I.P.
The 2Nd double in Bridge is defined as D.S.I.P.
and not penalty. If partner makes a takeout double and then a 2nd
double he is just showing the upper range of his previous
double not a trump stack in the opponents suit. If he makes
a negative double and then doubles again it is not trump stack but
showing a maximum for his previous bids. If you overcall and then
double it is not a trump stack but showing a good hand in the
D.S.I.P. way. No ambiguity in these auctions as trump stack
doubles do not exist as the initial action.
Reading between the lines for the meaning of penalty
doubles in a particular auction
is fine but ambiguity still leads to
disasters. I decided to see if “trump stack doubles” can be
completely eliminated from the bridge vocabulary in competitive
auctions when used as the initial bid. I did some research and
I discovered the most World
Class players already hold this view . Garozzo in his system
called Ambra has a very narrow definition of trump stack penalty
doubles. These doubles are virtually extinct in his system. As
much as I dislike testimonials to prove the validity of
Bridge theory , I will make a few exceptions. The following is
from the convention cards of world class players. Meckwell
X's at lower levels, Card-showing X's at more cramped” . Soloway-Hamman
“Frequent non-PEN DBL;”
“Frequent non-PEN DBL,”
and most of the others I examined
played non penalty type competitive doubles. The Bridge
World has circumvented the issue for decades. Quoting one
Master Solvers director “Doubles corrupt , and absolute
doubles corrupt absolutely”. Panel members for years say
“I like action doubles or they say if we play competitive
doubles in this situation I double “ . Nobody ( until now)
advocates throwing out trump stack doubles completely as the first
bid in all actively competitive auctions where you do not
own the hand. Eric Kokish feels that a double in high level
competitive auctions should be interpreted just like a forcing
pass when you do own the auction. My sentiments exactly. Pass –
The original inventers of Bridge had penalty doubles to
show a trump stack in the opponents suit. Changing this
concept in competition needs a constructive framework.
Forcing pass theory has a special meaning of pass and double to
conform to the situation where you own the auction and the
opponents are deemed to be sacrificing.
Borrowing a page from forcing pass theory , we define
D.S.I.P. theory to apply in all competitive auctions up to any
level where we do not own the hand. The is an added
requirement in that it must be a “competitive” auction with
both sides still bidding. As
pass theory , we can now redefine the meanings of double
and pass. Also an attitude adjustment is needed to
play D.S.I.P. double theory . Instead of never pulling
my penalty doubles , the new theory says “please pull my penalty
doubles” unless you have a reason to convert. This re-definition
of a penalty double is the basis of D.S.I.P. theory . A double in
competition is a far too useful & versatile a bid to waste as
showing a trump stack in the opponents suit. In fact
, a D.S.I.P. double is equivalent to a forcing pass
when you do own the auction. A D.S.I.P. doubles means I prefer to
bid again but I will abide by your decision partner.
Since Bridge is played in a clockwise direction
means that one partner may have to act before the other partner
gets a chance to make a penalty double in a competitive auction.
Quite often bad bidders are rescued by your own partner ,
who bids before you get a chance to make the correct choice of
bids i.e. a penalty double. Similar to the framework of forcing
pass theory , we have
meaning for the penalty double in direct competition.
The double means that you want to bid but you have defense so you defer
the decision to partner in
case he has a trump stack . This means partner can never “get in
your way” if a penalty double was coming up. If partner was
going to pull your penalty double anyway then he is allowed to bid
. The pass is defined differently then in forcing pass theory. The
means I want to defend and I could possibly have a trump stack in
their suit.. This way , as in forcing pass theory , both partners
have input into the decision. This takes the single handed penalty
double away from the partnership. Remember you can not have
it both ways. Sometimes opponents bid badly in competitive
auctions and you are looking at a juicy trump stack penalty
your fix and put the green card on the table. Should D.S.I.P.
theory even apply before the 5 level after game
has been bid ? Yes it should because of the clockwise order of the
game of Bridge. The D.S.I.P. double prevents pseudo sacrifices and
that alone is worth its weight in gold.
You must know Forcing Pass theory and the auctions
that turn on forcing passes to use D.S.I.P.
theory effectively. You have to switch back & forth
from the two
“modes” depending on whether you own the auction or not in
competitive auctions. Forcing pass theory takes
precedence over D.S.I.P. theory. D.S.I.P. theory applies in the pass
out chair also . You still have to ask partners permission
with a double if you want to bid. He could have a trump stack over
there which caused him to pass. Instead of the simplistic meaning
of a penalty double
suggesting that the opponents can not make a hand and the
scoring change accordingly , penalty doubles are redefined
into two classes. Doubles when you own the hand
and those made when you are competing. There is a 3rd
doubling “mode” in the game of Bridge. This is where the
auction dictates that the opponents own the hand or bid
their contract to make. A double in these auctions is still
D.S.I.P. saying I have defense but I would like to bid again. This
treatment is way better then the old “double/undouble” as the
doubler should have them close to booked in quick tricks. Partner
having a say in the proceedings may prevent pseudo
sacrifices which is one of the worst Bridge calamities.
D.S.I.P. doubles at high levels take over after the levels
that negative doubles cover right up to and including 4♠.
Always keep in mind though these D.S.I.P. doubles at this level
still imply that we do not own the hand . If we do own the
hand , of course , forcing pass theory is in effect and penalty
doubles are used to discourage partner from further bidding.
D.S.I.P. doubles are the default when forcing pass theory does not
apply and trump stack doubles are permitted only in tightly
defined situations where we are not competing actively.
Normally D.S.I.P. theory applies if the opponents have given us a
chance to find a fit .If we have not had a chance to
show a fit , A D.S.I.P. at high
levels or in non-fit
situations are card showing as opposed to I want
to bid in your suit. If we have shown a fit earlier , a double
says I want to bid again no matter how high the level (
below the 5 level).
Judging “duplication of value” is a huge part of
Bridge . Splinters were invented to discover duplication of value
and they are very successful. Duplication of value in the
opponents trump suit is a disaster in competitive auctions . In
order to have full weight to your singleton in their suit ,
partner must not have any values there. Without DSIP theory you
just have to guess and if you are wrong disaster strikes as the
double minus occurs. D.S.I.P. theory ,
by having the double show no duplication
of value in the opponents suit & wanting to take offensive
allows partner to pass the double when he has values in
their suit. No guess work at all. D.S.I.P. doubles can be thought
of as “check back” doubles. Do you have duplication
in their suit or not ? If not , you must bid in
most cases. Another way of thinking D.S.I.P. doubles is that they
are transfers. You transfer the penalty double decision
to partner as you have announced your hand. Announcing your
hand is and should be the basis of all penalty doubles.
A D.S.I.P. double can be thought of as asking partners
permission to make a bid . Like forcing pass theory, the
D.S.I.P. double brings in a joint
partnership decision to a penalty double. Trump stack doubles
are single handed actions . D.S.I.P. doubles are not
as you get partners approval to bid or convert for penalty. The
worst platitude in Bridge was “do not pull my penalty
doubles”. D.S.I.P. doubles are based on all penalty doubles are
to pulled unless partner wants to convert for penalty. Since pulling
doubles is a common practice playing this theory its best to
use Lebensohl at high levels when doing so. Pulling the double to
4NT first forces partner to bid 5♣ and your bid shows little
or no values. A direct pull means you think you can make the
contract so slam is a possibility. Judgment is required in converting
D.S.I.P. doubles for penalty. This judgment is a thorough
understanding of that factors that make a hand good for defensive
purposes. Like in negative double theory , you have an obligation
to bid partners possible trump stack double. If you have the
defensive tricks , by all means re-open
with a double in competitive situations.
D.S.I.P. theory is a tool to combat the opponents
pre-empts. These nuisance
bids work better then
they should because they exploit the ambiguity of penalty
doubles. Wrong decisions are made time after time because the ambiguity
of trump stack vrs HCP’s doubles muddle the decision making
process. Throwing out trump stacks doubles in these auctions
simplify matters. Negative doubles and D.S.I.P. doubles blend
right up to the 5♦ level
when dealing with pre-empts. There are no direct trump stack
doubles of pre-empts at any level .
D.S.I.P. doubles are a new tool . Depending on
vulnerability conditions do not “hang’ partner by overusing
the double. Give him some leeway.
Free bids are an old concept which I feel have no merit in the
modern game. With light distributional openers you trap yourself
by not bidding and informing partner the nature of your hand. I
advocate just bidding and if you do have a genuine free
bid make a D.S.I.P. double later in the auction to convey your
extra values. D.S.I.P. doubles are competitive doubles. The
D.S.I.P. double means you are “serious”
when you are competing. The corollary is that bidding again means
that you have just paid your card fees so it is not conveying any
messages to partner. The negative inference that you did not make
a D.S.I.P. double gives you a lot of freedom
in competitive auctions.
When Bridge was invented , it was thought that a 2NT bid in
competition would be useful to show a flat hand in the
invitational HCP range . In modern bidding that meaning has
virtually disappeared. 2NT is used as Lebensohl , scrambling , or
a two suiter . Ok. How do you describe the old fashioned 2NT
hand then ? The D.S.I.P. double replaces the 2NT bid if
possible. D.S.I.P. & the good-bad
2NT convention is a good mix. When the opponents compete to
the 2 level in the sandwich position , 2NT is useful to show the
difference between competing and making invitational bids. The
“good” is bidding directly & the “bad” is bidding 2NT.
There are still auctions where the trump stack double
applies. If your partner pre-empts with a weak 2 , 3 or 4 or a
systemic toy like unusual 2NT or Michaels then trump stack
penalty doubles still apply. This is especially so if partner
of the pre-empt makes a systemic forcing bid saying “we own the
hand”. There is one
exception to that statement though. When partner joins the party
partners suit either by supporting the pre-empt directly or
implied with a lead director , a double is now D.S.I.P.
to games or pre-emptive jump raises are auctions where trump
stack doubles still apply ( essentially they are pre-empts).
You do not want partners input into a D.S.I.P. decision as
he has already done so. If the auction is clearly a misfit
auction you probably would not make a D.S.I.P. double
as there is no safe resting place. The forcing
1NT auctions is an exception to the misfit auction treatment.
D.S.I.P. doubles apply in those auctions. When the opponents
balance, I feel trump stack doubles still apply if the doubler
the suit . Balancing is a gamble so there is definitely a win
lose proposition. If you lose it can be very costly. Another
situation where trump stack doubles still apply is trapping
& exposing psyches. When you are stacked in the opponents
suit it is best to pass and see if they get into hot water. When
that happens there are doubles that are of the trump stack
variety. D.S.I.P. doubles are defined only when you compete.
When you drop
out of the auction and subsequently double it is of the trump
stack variety. D.S.I.P. doubles are competitive doubles defined
when you are directly competing . Competitive doubles previously
were defined for very narrow auctions ( just when you and
opponents are raising each others suits ) . D.S.I.P. theory builds
on competitive doubles. In a nutshell , D.S.I.P. doubles are competitive
doubles where a double means you want to bid with defense , a
direct bid says you want to compete without defense and pass just
means I want to defend. There is no room for a trump stack
double with these understandings until later in the auction..
D.S.I.P. doubles apply with initial actions only in
competitive auctions. What about subsequent
doubles in a competitive auction after a few rounds of bidding
? These doubles are obviously penalty as you have already made a
D.S.I.P. double or a bid and partner is aware of the situation.
You do not make a 2nd D.S.I.P. double after you already
have the information needed to make a penalty decision. Penalty
doubles are still made in competitive situations but after
partner has already contributed to the decision making
NT and defending against the weak or strong NT brings
in D.S.I.P. theory. When the opponents overcall your strong NT ,
D.S.I.P. doubles are in effect. Negative
doubles at the two level are not useful in my opinion. 2NT is
usually used as a relay or transfer so what replaces that bid ? A
D.S.I.P. double fills the gap nicely. I like penalty doubles to
remain on one vulnerability – they are & we are not. As the
strong NT is the corner stone of your system ,
it is important to know when Forcing
Pass theory & D.S.I.P. theory applies. When your side doubles
a weak NT or a strong NT and they run,
D.S.I.P. doubles apply. This is because partner quite often
rescues the opponents before the original doubler can double them
for penalty. A common D.S.I.P. theme.
There is a situation when negative doubles turn into
D.S.I.P. doubles . This occurs when the opponents pre-empt at the
3 level either in the direct or sandwich position. This D.S.I.P.
double has a special name “Thrump
Doubles” as Marty Bergen invented the bid. The D.S.I.P.
double just shows cards or a long suit and asks partner to bid 3NT
with a stopper in their suit.
doubles are a class of D.S.I.P. doubles. If within the range
covered by negative doubles , re-opening doubles are just hands
that you would have otherwise left in a penalty double. In other
words , you have cards and no fit with partner. Out of the
negative double range , re-opening doubles are still D.S.I.P. as
they just show defense and are not “take-out bids” per se.
Even in NT auctions I play re-opening doubles as D.S.I.P.
and the over/under rule applies.
Expert players know that doubling the opponents freely bid
slams is a bad strategy. If you are not in the auction ,
the double is lead directing. If you or your partner has
been in the bidding & you
are not on lead your double is D.S.I.P. asking partners permission
to sacrifice. This is only at the slam
level and is similar to the old double/undoable that was in
vogue years ago.
D.S.I.P. doubles assist in your
balancing auctions . After balancing , a double can help you
compete or allow partner to convert for penalty if they re-enter
the auction . Balancing is an art form & making a belated
D.S.I.P. double can give partner an indication of the strength of
your hand. . Penalty doubles still exist when partner makes a balancing
double. This is just due to the nature of the beast that the
bid shows shortness in their suit.
doubles are a subset of D.S.I.P. doubles. These doubles want
you to take some action even after you have may have pre-empted
! You do not want to sell out so you double to show that you have
more defense than announced previously so partner take some
D.S.I.P. doubles can occur after your competitive tools
such as weak
two’s , unusual NT and Michaels bids. If partner had a
chance to make a forcing bid like 2NT and did not , D.S.I.P.
doubles can apply. When partner is a passed
hand and partners makes a pre-emptive weak 2 or higher ,
D.S.I.P. doubles apply.
toys that you use to disturb their NT
, Michaels Q bids and Unusual NT can all benefit from
D.S.I.P. theory. These bids vary depending on the vulnerability
and since they announce suits and are variable in strength ,
D.S.I.P. doubles are necessary to announce the strength and
competitive intentions. With the proper vulnerability a D.S.I.P.
double can give partner the option to sacrifice or convert for
penalty. This action is even applicable after they have reached
3NT after a strong NT opener by them. These bids and their T/O
double bring out the concept of “pass
& double” . In almost all these sequences except one
defined by them being vulnerable and you not , the double is
D.S.I.P. You should
announce your intentions by redoubling or doubling their systemic
toy to turn on forcing pass theory for penalty doubles.
Conventional doubles like
negative , support , responsive & maximal doubles are
all “disciplined” or conventional D.S.I.P. doubles. They are
not penalty but convey a specific meaning. D.S.I.P. doubles can
blend in with negative doubles & support
doubles for difficult hands . Finding a 5-3 major fit after a
negative double is a difficult auction. D.S.I.P. doubles
are competitive doubles that can be used as “game
try” doubles showing specifically 3 trump and limit raise
values. This frees the Q bid that shows limit raise or better
values to show 4 trump if limit raise values and 3 or more with
“better” or forcing to game values.
Do not forget that D.S.I.P. doubles do not necessarily show
flat defensive hands. The double can be made on wild distributional
hands as long as there are defensive tricks available. In order to
get a feeling for the new concept of DSIP doubles , it is helpful
to discuss them in the context of all competitive situations in
bridge where a penalty double might occur.
Bridge was played for decades before HCP’s were invented.
Culbertson advanced the idea of “honour tricks” or quick
tricks for evaluating an opening hand. Even with HCP’s
introduced , the notion of quick tricks never left the requirement
for an opening bid. Defensive quick
tricks and D.S.I.P. doubles are a good marriage. HCP’s get
eliminated by distribution but quick tricks are eradicated way
less often. What is the defensive requirement for a D.S.I.P.
double ? I feel this requirement should me measured in quick
tricks and if made by the opener or overcaller should be
within ½ of a trick of booking their contract.
If the double is by responder , the double should be maximum for
their bid but measured in quick tricks.
D.S.I.P. theory is not set in stone yet. My regular partners Tom
Gandolfo , BJ Trelford & I are still working out treatments.
Dr. Stan Cabay is assisting us in pointing out contradictions or
asking pointed questions. Stan sent in some sample hands from the
tournament. We are building up an archive of hands that occur
which re-enforce D.S.I.P. theory.
name D.S.I.P. for these doubles I got from a Calgary bloke named
Gordon Campbell. Many people have objected to the I in the acronym
. Knowing that partners are mere humans do something intelligent
may not always be the case. Some of us brainstormed to find
alternative meanings for the “I”.
What is in a name ? If I had a chance to rename these competitive
doubles, I would call them check
back doubles. You are checking back with partner to get the OK
to compete again.
stack penalty doubles have been around since the beginning of
Bridge. Why rock the boat and subscribe to D.S.I.P. theory ? In a
word, because it’s a better
way to use the penalty double in competition. During
the 1980’s and 1990’s experts were defining more and more
auctions where trump stack doubles do not apply. Until D.S.I.P.
theory , nobody took the final step of declaring trump
stack penalty doubles extinct in competitive auctions as an
initial action and coming up with a new meaning for the double
& pass. Forcing pass theory works because both partners
contribute to the final decision in forcing auctions.
D.S.I.P. theory works for the same reason in competitive
auctions. D.S.I.P. theory is a subset of Forcing
Pass Theory but for auctions where forcing pass theory does
not apply ! D.S.I.P.
brings the partnership into the decision making process
for penalty doubles. Wrong decisions in competition are “match
breakers”. Double partial swings , double game swings , double
slam swings & pseudo sacrifices are the big ticket items.
Experts have been moving away from “trump stack doubles” for
decades. I feel the time has come to put competitive
doubles in a structure similar to forcing pass theory.
Having this structure
to assist in these auctions is a must have for established
partnerships. Penalty doubles ( trump stack) , like the dinosaur
, are becoming extinct as an initial action. Good
disclaimer for all the D.S.I.P. theory above. The concept was
invented for IMPS or very good fields in Match Points. D.S.I.P.
theory and weak
match point fields are not a good mix. Borrowing a page from
the instructional books for dummies series , I have tried to
simplify the theory in D.S.I.P.
Doubles for Dummies . The knock against D.S.I.P. doubles
is that they are “transfer bids” . They transfer the blame
to partner. This is true but you arm partner first with
information based on defensive tricks and lack of HCP’s in their
suit. Partner is better placed to make the final decision. If it
does not work out , blame the card gods.
to D.S.I.P. theory is not easy.
Old habits are hard to break . In our Bridge “puppyhood” we
remember many telephone numbers we have inflicted on the opponents
because of single handed penalty doubles. However,
could you have got the same result by converting partners
D.S.I.P. double ? But
you must realize , how many of these numbers were accumulated
against good opponents in top level IMP games ? I would hazard a
guess , not too many. These is no free lunch in Bridge. You must
give up something to get something back . Justifying
a new theory or converting to a new way of thinking
needs to pass the test of time. So far in my partnership ,
there is no need to turn back the clock.